The aim with Optimizing your Adsense ads is to find your websites magic formula.
This "magic formula" will do two things:
1. It will generate the greatest responsiveness from your traffic - meaning your highest click through rate.
2. You will earn the maximum amount of revenue possible per click.
To increase your click through rate you will need to focus on your choice of ad format, color, and placement. You will also need to make sure that your ads are as relevant as they can be, as related ads inevitably generate more clicks than unrelated ads. The number of units per page and your use of adlinks will also effect your click through rate.
Ensuring that you are receiving the most that you possibly can per click is a little tricker and involves targeting higher paying adsense keywords through onpage search engine optimization tactics and the creation of supplemental content.
When you've achieved this optimum real revenue from Adsense comes from turning away from optimization and focusing on bringing more and more targeted traffic to your website to what will then be your optimized machine for converting visitors into Adsense money.